The Meaning of Addiction 3.
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Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages.
However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review.
A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified.
Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy.
Introduction Miscarriage is defined as spontaneous abortion without medical or mechanical means to terminate a pregnancy before the fetus is sufficiently developed to survive [ 1 ].
It denotes early pregnancy loss prior to completion of the 20th gestational week, or days, counting from the first day of the last normal menses [ 2 ]. The etiology of miscarriage is largely unknown and the underlying cause of most cases cannot be identified. Miscarriage can be classified as threatened, inevitable, incomplete, missed, or recurrent.
It will become inevitable when gross rupture of fetal membranes occurs along with severe vaginal bleeding and cervical dilatation; imminent fetal loss is almost certain in these cases [ 1 ].
Incomplete miscarriage refers to the internal cervical os remaining open and allows for passage of blood, but the products of conception could remain entirely or partially in utero extrude [ 1 ]. Recurrent miscarriage is generally defined as spontaneous abortions repeated consecutively over three or more times [ 1 ].
Current treatment for miscarriage is rather empirical. Bed rest does not alter the course and progress of miscarriage significantly [ 5 ]. Acetaminophen-based analgesia may have some effects on relieving the pains only [ 6 ]. Most commonly used Western medicines were progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin HCG.
HCG maintains the luteotrophic effects after luteinizing hormone secretion decreases in order to support continued secretion of estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrial proliferation and prevents pregnancy loss [ 78 ].
However, their beneficial effect still cannot be verified [ 79 ]. The mission of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NCCAM defines complementary and alternative medicine as a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products, which are not generally considered part of the conventional medicine [ 10 ].
There are different types of CAM [ 11 ], including natural products a variety of herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, etc. CAM also encompasses movement therapies a broad range of Eastern and Western movement-based approaches used to promote physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being such as Feldenkrais method, Alexander technique, and Pilates.
Chinese medicine is well accepted as the mainstream of medical care throughout East Asia with a history of 5, years; it has been spread aboard since the sixth century BC [ 12 ].
It has been widely used to promote health and treat illnesses since then [ 13 ] and accepted as a major approach of complementary and alternative medicine in Western world now [ 14 ].
Chinese medicine includes several different treatments which are applied quite differently, but they are all based on the same understandings of assumptions and insights in the nature of the human body [ 15 ]. Main therapeutic approaches [ 16 ] include acupuncture by stimulating certain acu-points with or without acupuncture needles to treat disorders or improve the health conditionChinese medicines applying traditional medicines, mainly from herbs, animals, and minerals, to cure illness and maintain good health,food therapy dietary recommendations on certain foods and herbs to balance inner bodyQi Gong promoting health by special breathing and meditation exerciseTai Chi benefiting different systems by the movements of muscles and the activities of related jointsTui Na applying massage on the surface of the body to clear the meridians and improve the blood flowCupping relieving blood stasis and pain by creating vacuum on bodyDie Da commonly applied in the injuries of limbs by direct stimulation on the body surfaceand Gua Sha scaling the skin to stimulate specific acu-points until mild to moderate subcutaneous hemorrhage [ 121317 ].
Miscarriage shares the same clinical signs and symptoms as in Western Medicine.introduction for Chinese culture Cultural background China, as one of the four homes of the world’s earliest civilization, has a recorded history of nearly 4, years.
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