Irrigation Management Overview Growers have long been concerned about water quality, but today water quantity has emerged as a leading consideration in managing irrigation. Today we not only have to focus on reducing contaminants caused by leaching and runoff, but irrigation systems have to be managed so that the amount of applied water closely matches crop water requirements. Poorly managed irrigation systems can cause soil damage, environmental problems, and contribute to low water use efficiency. A great deal of effort and resources have been dedicated to improving irrigation management in recent decades with great success.
Moving semen analysis into the future According to a study published by the World Health Organisation WHO inone in every four couples in developing countries are affected by infertility. Semen analysis of freshly ejaculated sperm remains an essential diagnostic tool in the initial investigation of male infertility.
A routine semen analysis is sometimes referred to as a sperm count but, in fact, a proper semen analysis includes much more than just a sperm count. The semen specimen is analysed for volume, viscosity, pH, colour, as well as sperm concentration, motility and morphology.
There are two fundamental approaches to understanding the clinical use of a semen analysis: As a means of assessing a mans reproductive health, and Whether a mans ejaculate contains enough potentially functional sperm to effectively colonise his partners reproductive tract and reach the site of fertilisation in the Fallopian tubes.
Specifically with regards to the latter, sperm kinematics characteristics that describe sperm movement, as opposed to the proportion of motile cells has become the focus of many studies in order to establish real clinical value for semen analysis.
Its value is greatly enhanced by adding sperm functional tests such as cervical mucus penetration, hyperactivation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm cervical mucus penetration This test measures the ability of sperm in the semen to pass through cervical mucus or equivalent substance, and is equivalent to the historic Kremer test performed years ago.
Studies have shown that at least 5 million sperm in the ejaculate should be able to pass through cervical mucus. Hyperactivation Hyperactivation is a functional change in the sperm movement pattern which usually occurs during the capacitation process one of the important physiological events sperm have to undergo in order to achieve fertilisation.
Sperm must be able to go into a whiplash-like motility pattern to help them penetrate the zona pellucida. If this test shows poor results, there is a chance that the sperm may not be able to fertilise an egg on their own, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI may be the best choice.
Hyperactivation has been shown to be one of a combination of sperm function tests which can be used to predict successful fertilisation in vitro. DNA fragmentation DNA fragmentation is associated with poor embryo development, low implantation rates and high miscarriage rates.
Therefore the assessment of DNA fragmentation has been advocated as a predictor of assisted reproductive treatment ART success.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Contents Introduction 5 1 What is Regulatory Stewardship 6 2 Roles in the environmental management system 7 Role of the Ministry for the Environment 7.
A popular powerful type of analysis is a SWOT Analysis. 1 This breaks a project down into its four strategic planning areas: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Each of these is a smaller, much easier problem to solve. Overview. Growers have long been concerned about water quality, but today water quantity has emerged as a leading consideration in managing irrigation.
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