Cognitive responses in persuasion. Classic and contemporary approaches.
Classic experiment[ edit ] In a classic experiment investigating the effectiveness of the DITF technique, researchers separated participants into three groups. After their refusal, the group was asked to chaperone juvenile delinquents on a one-day trip to the zoo small request.
Group 2 was given only the small request. In group 3, the experimenter described the large request but asked the participants to perform the small request.
Because compliance for the small request was significantly larger for group 1 than group 2, the DITF technique was successful.
Compliance for the small request was also significantly larger for group 1 than group 3, which demonstrates that mere exposure to the more extreme task does not affect compliance as significantly.
Reciprocal concessions and social responsibility[ edit ] Support for social responsibility[ edit ] Two studies comparing reciprocal concessions with social responsibility explanations found evidence for social responsibility related to helping.
These terms either referred to helping or to bargaining.
In the second study, participants rated the similarity of a DITF interaction to four other situations: The DITF scenarios used in both studies were taken from previous research and shown to be very effective in influencing compliance.
Overall, findings indicate that participants felt DITF interactions were more closely related to helping than bargaining.
This supports the social responsibility explanation of the DITF technique because social responsibility is related to helping one's self, while reciprocal concessions is related to negotiating. This study employed two different types of confederates, in-group confederates who dressed and acted like college students and out-group confederates who dressed and acted more formally.
The in-group confederates introduced themselves as university students, while the out-group confederates introduced themselves as private business school students.
All of the participants in this study went to the same university as the in-group confederates. The confederates either made a large request then a smaller one, a smaller request alone, or offered the participant a choice of both requests.
Results show greater compliance to the second smaller request for the in-group confederates compared to out-group confederates, but there was still a DITF effect in the out-group context.
Participants were most likely to comply to requests from those within their social groups, yet they still had increased compliance to the smaller second request for people outside of their social groups. The researchers suggest that this is evidence for reciprocal concessions because the influence of social group and the DITF effect work independently of each other, therefore, there must be another explanation for DITF that does not involve in-group-out-group biases.
The researchers fail to mention the social responsibility explanation, however. Participants were either given a large, moderate, or small request initially.
The confederate gave the smaller request after an initial large or moderate one.The low-ball is a persuasion and selling technique in which an item or service is offered at a lower price than is actually intended to be charged, after which the price is raised to increase profits.
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