Expansion of the Islamic state was an understandable development, since Muhammad himself had successfully established the new faith through conversion and conquest of those who stood against him. United by their faith in God and a commitment to political consolidation, the merchant elite of Arabia succeeded in consolidating their power throughout the Arabian peninsula and began to launch some exploratory offensives north toward Syria. The wars of expansion were also advanced by the devotion of the faithful to the concept of jihad.
Muslim conquestsRashidun Caliphateand Umayyad Caliphate Within the century of the establishment of Islam upon the Arabian peninsula and the subsequent rapid expansion of the Arab Empire during the Muslim conquestsone of the most significant empires in world history was formed.
The objective of the conquests was mostly of a practical nature, as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian peninsula.
A real Islamization therefore only came about in the subsequent centuries. When the Muslims defeated the Pagans, some returned to Arabiabut many decided to stay there and established Muslim communities along the Somali coastline.
The local Somalis adopted the Islamic faith well before the faith even took root in its place of origin. At the outset, they were hostile to conversions because new Muslims diluted the economic and status advantages of the Arabs.
The new understanding by the Spread of islam between 632 750 and political leadership in many cases led to a weakening or breakdown of the social and religious structures of parallel religious communities such as Christians and Jews. They furthermore began the ambitious project of building mosques across the empire, many of which remain today as the most magnificent mosques in the Islamic world, such as the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.
Only on the Arabian peninsula was the proportion of Muslims among the population higher than this. The Abbasids — [ edit ] See also: Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasids are known to have founded some of the world's earliest educational institutions such as the House of Wisdom.
Expansion ceased and the central disciplines of Islamic philosophytheologylaw and mysticism became more widespread and the gradual conversions of the populations within the empire occurred.
Significant conversions also occurred beyond the extents of the empire such as that of the Turkic tribes in Central Asia and peoples living in regions south of the Sahara in Africa through contact with Muslim traders active in the area and Sufi orders.
In Africa it spread along three routes, across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktuup the Nile Valley through the Sudan up to Uganda and across the Red Sea and down East Africa through settlements such as Mombasa and Zanzibar.
These initial conversions were of a flexible nature. The reasons why, by the end of the 10th century, a large part of the population had converted to Islam are diverse.
According to British-Lebanese historian Albert Houranione of the reasons may be that "Islam had become more clearly defined, and the line between Muslims and non-Muslims more sharply drawn. Muslims now lived within an elaborated system of ritual, doctrine and law clearly different from those of non-Muslims.
The status of Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians was more precisely defined, and in some ways it was inferior. They were regarded as the 'People of the Book', those who possessed a revealed scripture, or 'People of the Covenant', with whom compacts of protection had been made.
In general they were not forced to convert, but they suffered from restrictions. They paid a special tax; they were not supposed to wear certain colors; they could not marry Muslim women.
The Quran does not give much detail about the right conduct with non-Muslims, in principle recognizing the religion of "People of the book" Jews, Christians, and sometimes others as well and securing a separate tax from them inlieu of the zakat imposed upon Muslim subjects. Ira Lapidus points towards "interwoven terms of political and economic benefits and of a sophisticated culture and religion" as appealing to the masses.
Earlier generations of European scholars believed that conversions to Islam were made at the point of the sword, and that conquered peoples were given the choice of conversion or death.
It is now apparent that conversion by force, while not unknown in Muslim countries, was, in fact, rare. Muslim conquerors ordinarily wished to dominate rather than convert, and most conversions to Islam were voluntary.
In most cases worldly and spiritual motives for conversion blended together. Moreover, conversion to Islam did not necessarily imply a complete turning from an old to a totally new life. While it entailed the acceptance of new religious beliefs and membership in a new religious community, most converts retained a deep attachment to the cultures and communities from which they came.
Conversion to Islam also came about as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies: This worked better in some areas Anatolia and less in others e.
A sense of unity grew among many though not all provinces, gradually forming the consciousness of a broadly Arab-Islamic population: Abbasid Period[ edit ] There are a number of historians who see the rule of the Umayyads as responsible for setting up the "dhimmah" to increase taxes from the dhimmis to benefit the Arab Muslim community financially and to discourage conversion.
During the following Abbasid period an enfranchisement was experienced by the mawali and a shift was made in the political conception from that of a primarily Arab empire to one of a Muslim empire  and c. Other estimates suggest that Muslims were not a majority in Egypt until the midth century and in the Fertile Crescent until Syria may have had a Christian majority within its modern borders until the Mongol Invasions of the 13th century.
Dissolution of the Abbasids and the emergence of the Seljuks and Ottomans [ edit ] The expansion of Islam continued in the wake of Turkic conquests of Asia Minorthe Balkansand the Indian subcontinent. The Ottoman Empire defended its frontiers initially against threats from several sides: Later, the Ottoman Empire set on to conquer territories from these rivals: Cyprus and other Greek islands except Crete were lost by Venice to the Ottomans, and the latter conquered territory up to the Danube basin as far as Hungary.
Crete was conquered during the 17th century, but the Ottomans lost Hungary to the Holy Roman Empire, and other parts of Eastern Europe, ending with the Treaty of Carlowitz in Post-Ottoman Empire to the present[ edit ].In this book, David Nicolle examines the extensive Islamic conquests between AD and These years saw the religion and culture of Islam erupt from the Arabian Peninsula and spread across an area far larger than that of the Roman Empire.
Sep 03, · The early rise of Islam () The Muslim community spread through the Middle East through conquest, and the resulting growth of the Muslim state provided the . The sweep of Empire ( C.E.) The death of Mohammed shocked many Arabs who had attributed divine qualities to the prophet.
In order to ease their doubts, one of Mohammed's chief followers, Abu Bakr, addressed the crowd gathered in Mecca: "Whichever of you worships Mohammed, know that Mohammed is dead. Early Muslim conquests; Expansion from –, with modern borders overlaid: Date: – Muhammad died in and was succeeded by Abu Bakr, the period of rapid centralized expansion would now give way to an era when further spread of Islam would be slow and accomplished through the efforts of local dynasties, missionaries.
What was one effect of the expansion of islam between and is that ISlam conquered half of Byzantine empire Persia northern Africa and Spain and dominated the. By the year CE, or of the hijra, Islam in Asia had spread to Turkey (with the conquest of Byzantium by the Seljuk Turks).
It had also spread across Central Asia and into China via the Silk Road, as well as to what is now Malaysia, Indonesia, and the .